Determine whether the following pair of events are dependent or independent.

Event E is the event that a resident of Pennsylvania lives in Pittsburgh, and F is the event that a resident of Pennsylvania lives in either Pittsburgh or Philadelphia.

**Solution:-**

Two events, E and F, are dependent if the outcome of event E influences the outcome of event F, and vice versa. Event E and F are independent if the outcome of E does not affect the outcome of event F, and vice versa.

Notice that the fact that a resident of Pennsylvania lives in Pittsburgh influences the fact that a resident of Pennsylvania lives in either Pittsburgh or Philadelphia, because if a resident of Pennsylvania lives in Pittsburgh, it is certain that the resident of Pennsylvania lives in Pittsburgh or Philadelphia.

Therefore, the two events are dependent.